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Copy of Breguet’s Pre-1914 Aircraft Challenge™ amended by lepeps    contact       

Breguet’s Pre-1914 Aircraft Challenge™ related forum discussions and further details concerning these aerial machines can be found at http://www.theaerodrome.com/forum/pioneer-aviation/.  & History of Airplanes Photos and summaries of historical aircraft  &   wright-brothers.org  &  podniebni.zafriko.pl  

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Unidentified Quadruplane.

Argentino 1ro.
Designed by Argentinian amateur Enrique Artigalá and known as the Argentino 1ro, quoted as fitted with a 50 hp Gnôme and built during 1911.

Faccioli No.3.
1909 SPA-Faccioli biplane, powered by a 20 hp Faccioli motor. Piloted by its designer Aristide Faccioli, in December 1909 at Turin, Italy, this machine became the world’s 15th aeroplane to make a successful controllable flight. Faccioli produced four designs during the years 1909-1910, built by his own firm Società Piemontese Automobili.


Sánchez Besa Biplane.
Pusher biplane with a buried 80 hp Canton-Unné motor as seen at the Paris Salon in 1912.

Gasnier Biplane of 1908.
Uncovered photograph of the first pusher biplane designed and built by René Gasnier. Powered by a 50 hp Antoinette motor and featuring a distinctive front elevator that could also be tilted to work as a rudder. This machine was damaged on its first day of flight.
Rene Gasnier said, "We are like children compared with the Wrights

Gammeter Ornothopter of 1907.
Patented creation of Aero Club of Cleveland president Harry Gammeter; with bamboo-and-silk flapping wings, double-hinged to the fuselage, flapping at 75 strokes per minute, driven by a 7 hp Curtiss engine. Listed as an entrant in the 1907 International Aeronautic Tournament at St. Louis.

Némethy Flugrad of 1901.
Designed and built by Emil von Némethy at his factory in Arad, Hungary (now in Romania). The construction of his Flugrad (“flying wheel”) started sometime in 1899 yet wasn’t completed until 1901. A second machine appeared in 1903 - pictured in a 1907 Scientific American article - and in 1910 produced a third and final original design. Némethy soon after however, gave up his experiments once his Anzani motor was damaged and he’d run out of money.

Wiseman Biplane.
Also known as Wiseman-Cooke biplane from 1910/1911, a pusher that combined the designs of Wright, Farman and Curtiss. Claimed to be the first biplane to be flown in California, it was fitted with an overbored 4-cylinder engine from a “San Francisco engine company” by Frederick J. Wiseman, who increased the power output to 50 hp. Today it is proudly displayed in the Smithsonian’s National Postal Museum in Washington, D.C. after being restored in 1983-1985 by NASM.

Caudron Monoplane of 1912.
6-cylinder Anzani air-cooled radial powered Caudron Frères monoplane, sometimes described as Type M, it was also found with a 7-cylinder 50 hp Gnôme Omega. A development of an earlier design of 1911, the Type N, first shown to the public with a 3-cylinder Y-type Anzani.

Saulnier Monoplane of 1910 with Darracq engine.

August von Parseval’s Aeroboat of 1909 - “Das Aeroplan”.

Sommer Type E Monoplane.
This Roger Sommer monoplane, a fabric covered fuselage version, was designed by Ingénieur Tonnet and flown circa 1911/1912. Léon Bathiat flew many variants of this fast monoplane in several competitions during 1910 and 1911, and in 1912 all interests were purchased by Bathiat who sold these monoplanes under the name Bathiat-Sanchez. Very similar to the Bathiat-Sanchez Type E, shown at the Paris Aero Salon of 1913.

Clerget-Etrich Taube “Aman”.
Slightly modified version of the Etrich IV Taube license-built by Clerget in France for whose name appeared on the tail, Gustave Aman. Powered by an inline Clerget engine, it was completed in August but first flown in October 1910.

Demkin Biplane of 1911.
Georgiy Konstantinovich Demkin’s [Георгий Константинович Демкин] second design, it is stated that he held a shed at the Gatchina airfield near St. Petersburg. Only a few “short, straight flights” were achieved with this sesquiplane fitted with a 3-cylinder 25 hp Anzani.

Konstantin Danilewsky’s Dirigible Aerostat Pilstrem.

Jacob Brodbeck’s Air Ship of 1865.

Jones Aeroplane of 1905.
The flying machine by Charles Oliver Jones was the first heavier-than-air craft to be fitted with a Curtiss engine. Jones was quite active as a socialist lecturer and also an early aeronaut. After his aeroplane failed to fly, he turned his attentions to aerial exhibitionism, first building and flying a unique dirigible named the “Boomerang”, then modifying the apparatus in the style of Capt. Baldwin, on which he lost his life when it caught fire during a flight at Waterville, Maine on September 2, 1908.

Baldwin Airship No.4 - the 1907 California Arrow.
First flown at Hammondsport, N.Y. on June 28, 1907 by Glenn Curtiss, Capt. Baldwin’s Curtiss-powered machine was driven by an atypical 4-bladed propeller and sported a rudder decorated as the “Stars and Stripes”. Entered in the St. Louis airship races in October and finished a distant third behind the Strobel airships of Beachey and Dallas. Constructors (left to right): Eugene Godet, Thomas Scott Baldwin, —, Glenn H. Curtiss.

Ellehammer 1905 Monoplane.
Jacob Christian Hansen Ellehammer’s 1905-maskine. The first full-scale attempt by Ellehammer, which did not fly. Ellehammer then experimented with an upper “sail”, added it to the machine, and succeeded in making brief tethered ascensions from a circular track on September 12, 1906.

Tonini Monorebus of 1911.
Monoplane designed by Alessandro Tonini, powered by a REBUS engine. The name of the machine was a contraction of both, becoming Monorebus. Tonini had initiated the firm Officine Mechaniche REBUS in Milan, which specialized in “Aeroplani, Motori per Aeroplani, Costruzioni Aeronautiche and Construzioni Mecchaniche”. After the Monorebus was successfully flown in June 1911, Tonini started designing revolutionary canard machines and later became chief constructor with Nieuport-Macchi.

Pischoff Biplane of 1907.
Tractor biplane of Alfred de Pischoff, powered by a 25 hp Anzani 3-cylinder engine. Although tried, the machine did not fly. A French sounding name, de Pischoff was from Austria (Austro-Hungary) where he was known as Alfred Ritter von Pischoff.

Moy Aerial Steamer.
Experimental 15-foot span tandem-wing monoplane, powered by a 3 hp steam engine driving two, 6-foot diameter pusher- propelling paddle wheels. Built by Englishman Thomas Moy, the unmanned flying machine was tested in the Spring of 1875, tethered to a pole, running on a circular track, at the gardens of the Hotel DeLuxe in south London. Spuriously reported to have left the ground and “flown” at a height of six inches, the Aerial Steamer may sometimes be claimed to be the first unmanned airplane to fly from level ground.

Jones Monoplane.
Australian engineer L. J. R. (Leslie) Jones’ petrol-engined monoplane, his third design, tested at Emu Plains on March 3, 1912. Jones had previously built two steam-powered airplanes before 1911; both planes and engines being of his own design. He went on to design a biplane that eventually flew in 1916 and was continually active in aircraft design after World War I.

Gassier Monoplane aka Gassier Sylphe.
Pusher monoplane with semi-circular ailerons at the trailing edge of the wings.

Kudashev (Кудашев) Biplane of 1910.
Sometimes designated Кудашев 1, Kudashev’s biplane was, reportedly, the first aeroplane of Russian design flown. On May 23, 1910 (date presumably old-style), it flew about half the length of a football pitch at a height of a couple of feet at Kiev. The flight was not advertised and went unnoticed by the general public. Kudashev was a civil engineer and associate professor at Kiev Polytechnics.

Jatho Doppeldecker “Motordrachen” of 1903.
Powered by a 9-12 hp Buchet motor, belt-drive pusher propeller, rebuilt from Karl Jatho’s earlier Dreidecker, which had been damaged on August 21, 1903.

Le 18 août 1903 dans le ciel : Jatho réalise un vol motorisé de 18 m.
Histoire de l’aviation - 18 août 1903. Les frères Wright, Orville et Wilbur, seraient-ils vraiment à l’origine du premier vol motorisé de l’histoire de l’aviation mondiale, comme on peut le lire ici et là? Rien n’est moins sûr! En effet, cet exploit revient aux Européens et plus particulièrement à deux Allemands qui l’ont réalisé bien avant les Américains, mais malheureusement leur nom n’est pas vraiment resté dans les annales, rendons donc à César ce qui lui appartient !
Les deux Allemands en question sont Gustav Weisskopf et Karl Jatho, le premier ayant fait le premier vol motorisé le 14 août 1901 avec un monoplan n° 21 à moteur de 12 chevaux, soit un vol de 850 mètres. Le second signe pareille performance ce 18 août 1903, quatre mois avant qu’Orville Wright vole avec son Flyer 1 (17 décembre 1903).
C’est sur la lande de Vahrenfelder, que Karl Jatho va ainsi voler sur 18 mètres, évoluant à 1 mètre de hauteur, avec son appareil le « Zweidecker I » de type biplan à hélice propulsive bipale et à moteur monocylindre Buchet, affichant une puissance de 9 chevaux.

Siemens Bourcart Biplane.
A 5-seater Siemens-Schuckert Werkes biplane designed by Max Bourcart with a combination steel tubing and wood construction, powered by a 50 hp Argus engine, and chain-driven to the two propellers. First flown on 9 march 1910, a 1000 m straight-line flight piloted by Bourcart. The second, and last flight, was made on March 11, piloted by Bourcart with two passengers, ending in a crash landing. Bourcart had patented such a construction on September 9, 1902 [German Patent 145547 - Flugmaschine mit zwei Luftschrauben, deren Flügel ineinandergreifen].

Ziegler Pfeil-Eindecker.
Albert Ziegler, born in Zeiden (today Codlea) next to Kronstadt (Braşov), Transylvania, worked as an engineer in the motor and aviation business in Switzerland, France and England before coming to Germany in 1911. There he assisted Prinz Sigismund von Preußen in building a glider, and was employed by Rumpler, Wright and Garuda. In 1912 Ziegler acquired a used 50-55 hp Argus engine and a shed at the Bornstedter Feld near Potsdam from the Siemens-Schuckert company, where at least a year was needed to realise his “Pfeil-Eindecker”. Flown during the summer of 1913, it was said to have been very stable and well steerable.

Merćep 1912 aka Merćep-Rusjan Military-Monoplane of 1912 or Rusjan-Novak No.2.
Second design after the crash of the Slovenian aviation pioneer Eduardo Rusjan. Earlier, Eduardo had moved with his brother to Zagreb, Croatia, where Guiseppe Rusjan and Dragutin Karlo Novak then continued to built aircraft for the “Agramer Aëroplanfabrik M. Merćep”, set up by the businessman Mihajlo Merćep in Zagreb.

Kowalski’s Airplane.
A machine built by Polish emigrant John Kowalski in Aspinwall, Pennsylvania, USA in 1910. This biplane is recognized to be the first Pittsburgh-built aeroplane flown, when on October 9, 1910, Kowalski, a marine engine builder with a great interest in aviation, crashed just after take-off.

Pega & Emich / Deutsche Sommer Eindecker.
Tractor monoplane designed and recorded as a Deutsche Sommer aircraft, in respect to Pega & Emich (Griesheim / Darmstadt) being sold to the Deutsche Sommer-Flugzeugwerke early in 1911. Unsuccessfully powered by a 60 hp Hoffmann-Rotor engine, sporting an uncovered fuselage and elevator section in front.

NFW E 5 Eindecker.
Designed and built by the Nordwestdeutsche Flugzeugwerke Heinrich Evers & Co. In all, 6 different monoplanes, E 1 through E 6, were built by NFW between 1912 and 1913. The engineer Heinrich Evers was the leading force at NFW and while the firm folded for financial reasons within a year, in 1913 he went to the USA to work for the Benoist firm. At the start of WWI he immediately returned to Germany, but was captured by the French and interned in France until 1917 whereas Evers fled to Switzerland and later to Germany. Evers was then employed by Caspar, later again going to the USA to work for the Fokker firm.

“Mainguet” of 1910.
Intended to hold ten passengers in an enclosed cabin, (the pilot was seated outside). Distinctive for its bulbous fuselage and lack of a stabilizing vertical tail fin.

Lawrenz Taube.
Powered by a 100 hp Argus; second of two aeroplanes built by Theodor Lawrenz, pilot brevet nr. 638 (Feb. 1, 1914), at Johannisthal.

Dufaux Tiltrotor.
Built in Switzerland in 1909 by the Dufaux brothers. An ambitious concept for the time, the Tiltrotor not successful.

More   Henri et Armand Dufaux

Miller Monoplano model 1910.
Third and final aeroplane designed and constructed by Franz Miller of Turin, Italy.

Jourdan Monoplane 1.
First of three cone-fuselage aeroplanes (shrouded propeller, patented December 30, 1910), designed and constructed in 1909 by Henri Jourdan, and modified through various stages of development, of which only the final model was flown. Often identified as the Hélicoplane Jourdan, although the designation has no connection to contemporary usage.

Le Grand ballon captif à vapeur of Henry Giffard.
A captive balloon of 25,000 m³ built for the Universal Exhibition of Paris of 1878, capable of carrying 40 passengers. Located at the courtyard of the Tuileries in Paris, it was one of the main attractions of the exhibition, making up to ten ascents per day to an altitude of 500-600 m. Using mechanical winches, its first ascent took place on July 19, 1878 and would eventually lift over 35,000 passengers on more than 1000 ascensions made.

Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen FF 1.
First form of the first Friedrichshafen model, FF 1, distinguished by its central float concept, pusher construction, 3-bay wing and old-style ailerons between the wings.

D.F.W. Stahltaube.
Licence built version of the Jeannin Stahltaube, 1913. According to the book of M. Krzyzan & H. Steinle on the Jeannin Stahltaube, the Deutsche Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H. firm at Lindenthal, Leipzig received an order for 18 of these copies but delivered only two.

Columbia Biplane of Colonel Paul Peck.
Machine designed by Peck fitted with a seven-cylinder, air-cooled rotary rated at 50 hp at 1500 rpm, built by the Gyro Motor Company (Washington), sponsored by, and designed under the direction of Emile Berliner. The heavy Gyro motor was fatal to Peck (and passenger) in his crash on Cicero Field, Chicago on September 11, 1912. Peck held American pilot licence No.57 and had set the American duration record at 4 hours 23 minutes, 15 seconds set on May 24, 1912.

Grawert Flugmaschine.
Amphibien-Flugboot designed and built by Fritz Grawert in 1910. The engine, a special three-chamber design of Grawert’s (patent issued in 1910), drove two propellers (pusher and tractor). The wings were made of aluminium with silk covering and could be detached from the boat fuselage. Grawert died in 1916.

Fernandez Aeral of 1909.
Machine of Spanish pioneer Antonio Fernandez, the fourth heavier-than-air aviator to become the victim of an aerial accident; dying at the age of 33 on December 6, 1909 on his Fernandez N°3 Aeral.

Cody II.
Michelin Cup machine in which he flew 4 3/4 hours on December 31, 1910 to win the trophy. Clear differences to the earlier machine were the one large propeller installed at the rear in place of the two forward propellers and a 60 hp Green engine fitted in place of the ENV.

Gabardini Flying Boat of 1912.
Tested, unsuccessfully, in the harbour at Monaco.

Yurev Helicopter of 1912.
Student of the Moscow Technical College (МВТУ), Борис Николаевич Юрьев (Boris Nickolaevich Yurev) was the inventor of an automatic pitch-control mechanism, but because of lack of funds this full scale model was built without an engine nor pitch-control mechanism. Later however, a 30 hp Anzani radial was installed yet the machine remained without the poorly working pitch-control, which was used only on rotating tests. Considered to be the first modern helicopter with a single main rotor and a tail rotor.

Frassinetti Monoplane of 1912.
Designed by Colonello Romeo Frassinetti, who was already active in ballooning during 1900-05. Frassenetti founded the now little-known FIAM - Fabbrica Italiana Aeroplani Milano, which probably built this modern looking monoplane.

Hurlburt Flying Machine of 1910.
Designed by Jericho, Vermont dentist Dr. Dane Hurlburt and said to have been built in Lucerne, Switzerland, but flown in his native USA. A box-kite biplane with laterally-placed wings (wings rotated at 90 degrees to the direction of flight), Hurlburt’s aeroplane was powered by one 25 hp Anzani three cylinder motor driving a five and one-half metre long shaft with pusher-tractor propellers of 2 metres diameter. Contrarily claimed by various sources to have achieved several flights (notably on September 21, 1909 at Lucerne), as well as to have never been flown at all.

Gibson Twinplane of 1910.
Designed and constructed by Canadian merchant and businessman William Wallace Gibson, the “Balgonie Birdman”. The first heavier-than-air machine flown in western Canada (at Victoria, B.C.).

Borgnis-Desbordes et de Savignon Triplane.
Also known as the Borgnis de Savignon et de Desbordes. The naming of the machine was after its designers/financier, Achille and Paul Borgnis, and Desbordes de Savignon. According to reports this triplane actually left the ground several times in Gennevilliers on January 31, 1909. The exampled photo is of the first version, which was later modified. In the modification the elevator was brought to the rear of the machine. This machine crashed in 1910, ending the aviation related careers of the Borgnis brothers.

MORE. Desbordes de Savignon, and built another triplane which may be considered a development of the second Bousson-Borgnis. It was of all-metal construction, built at Gennevilliers, with wings like those on the big Vaniman - they might have been built by Vaniman. There were no rear tail surfaces: steering was done with ailerons set on forward outriggers, and a forward elevator was set low ahead of the 4-wheel undercarriage.   (Span: 14.5 m; wing area: 80 sqm; gross weight: 570 kg; 28 hp 6-cylinder engine).
  Modified, with new undercarriage and elevator moved to the rear, it was driven to Yffiniac on the northern coast of Brittany, where it flew and made a "memorable crash." Repaired, at the end of 1910 it was destroyed in a collision.
source   http://flyingmachines.ru/Site2/Crafts/Craft29215.htm   & http://flyingmachines.ru/Site2/Arts/Art4743.htm 

The first version of the Borgnis et Desbordes de Savignon; this picture was taken on 12 March 1909.

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