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Copy of Breguet’s Pre-1914 Aircraft Challenge™ amended by         

Breguet’s Pre-1914 Aircraft Challenge™ related forum discussions and further details concerning these aerial machines can be found at http://www.theaerodrome.com/forum/pioneer-aviation/.  & History of Airplanes Photos and summaries of historical aircraft  &   wright-brothers.org  &  podniebni.zafriko.pl    Challenge enumeration and submitted images of aircraft   1914-1918      JANE'S ALL THE WORLD'S AIRCRAFT 1913*****  

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Aeroplanes Sanchez-Besa Demountable Biplane (Type Militaire).
A variant of Sanchez-Besa’s Renault powered 1912 biplane, identified as his third design. Purportedly Salmson powered with slightly different dimensions. The tow vehicle is a 1910 model Delage type French roadster.

K.u.k. Militärluftschiff M.III System „Körting“.
Non-rigid military dirigible constructed by the firms of Körting and Wimpassing (K-W 1) based on the Parseval-type. First ascended on January 1, 1911, the “Körting” was Austria’s most successful airship before being tragically lost on a routine aerophotogrammetric mission at Fischamend near Vienna. On June 20, 1914, moments after suffering a glancing mid-air collision with a Farman HF20 - a pusher biplane newly acquired by the military - the hydrogen-filled airship burst into a ball of fire and was dashed to earth. Nine men died including the pilot and observer of the Farman.

Anonymous Hot-air Balloon/Tullamore Balloon Fire of 1785.
On May 10, 1785 a hot-air balloon crashed in the town of Tullamore, County Offaly, Ireland, causing a fire that burnt down about 100 to 130 houses, making it the world’s first aviation disaster. Launched from a Dr. Bleakly’s yard; the fire started when the balloon collided with the barracks chimney, and ignited. Despite the efforts of the Tullamore townspeople and the scorching and burning of a few, the fire could not be put out until it had done enormous damage. To this day, the town’s coat-of-arms depicts a phoenix rising.

Schmaltz Eindecker of 1908.
Ernst Schmalz, born 1879 in Nidau, Switzerland, in 1908 built with the help of Failloubaz, a pusher monoplane - powered by a 12 hp Anzani motor - with large ailerons he himself named “Stabiloklappen”. In flight tests at Thun he made jumps of up to a height of 6 meters. In 1909, Schmalz retired from flying. He sold his apparatus to a chauffeur, who collided with a tree top in flight tests on the Beundenfeld in Bern. Although the pilot remained intact, the aeroplane itself was a total loss.

Barcala-Cierva-Díaz Glider of 1910.
The first B.C.D. glider built by José Barcala, Juan de la Cierva and Pablo Díaz.

British National Antarctic (Discovery) Expedition Balloon “Eva”.
One of two observation balloons procured by Robert Falcon Scott from the the British War Office for him to use on his first polar expedition. Inflated with 8480 cubic feet (240 m³) of hydrogen and ascended with Capt. Scott on February 4, 1902, this was the first flight in Antarctica by any type of aircraft and reached a height of 244 metres - the limit of the tether. From the balloon Capt. Scott saw many parallel lines of undulation to Southward. A second ascent was then made the same day, carrying Ernest Shackleton, who took the first ever Antarctic aerial photographs, but after that the balloon developed a leak and was never flown again. The location of these flights was a small bay in the Ross Ice Barrier, near King Edward VII Land along what is now known as the Bay of Whales. The second balloon of the expedition was never flown. The name “Eva” was given to the former British Army balloon by Scott.

Aldasoro Glider of 1909.
Monoplane glider built by Juan Pablo Aldasoro of Mexico City, Mexico.

Cayley Boy Carrier.
Original sketch by Sir George Cayley of his full-size glider of 1849. It was successfully flown unmanned, and tested for a few yards at a time with the 10-year old son of one of his servants on board. It was the world’s first aeroplane with inherent stability. Wing area: 338 square feet; empty weight: 132 pounds.

Sir George Cayley, 6th Baronet (27 December 1773 – 15 December 1857) was a prolific English engineer and one of the most important people in the history of aeronautics. Many consider him the first true scientific aerial investigator and the first person to understand the underlying principles and forces of flight.[1] Sometimes called the "Father of Aviation",[2][3] in 1799 he set forth the concept of the modern aeroplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift, propulsion, and control.[4][5] Often known as "the father of Aerodynamics", he was a pioneer of aeronautical engineering. Designer of the first successful glider to carry a human being aloft, he discovered and identified the four aerodynamic forces of flight—weight, lift, drag, and thrust—which are in effect on any flight vehicle. Modern aeroplane design is based on those discoveries including cambered wings. He is credited with the first major breakthrough in heavier-than-air flight and he worked over half a century before the development of powered flight, being acknowledged by the Wright brothers.[2][6] He designed the first actual model of an aeroplane and also diagrammed the elements of vertical flight.[7]

Cayley served for the Whig party as Member of Parliament for Scarborough from 1832 to 1835, and helped found the Royal Polytechnic Institution (now University of Westminster), serving as its chairman for many years. He was a founding member of the British Association for the Advancement of Science and was a distant cousin of the mathematician Arthur Cayley.

http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Prehistory/Cayley/PH2.htm  *****

Christmas Pusher Biplane of 1912.
Patented biplane configuration as invented by William Whitney Christmas (U.S. Patent 957,744 Flying machine, patented May 10, 1910), constructed by the Christmas Aeroplane Co. of Washington, DC. This version was fitted with a 6-cylinder 75 hp Roberts motor, photographed after making practice flights in the hands of Clinton O. Hadley at a height of 500 feet.

Letur “Parachute-dirigeable”.
Designed and patented by Louis-Charles Letur (French brevet dated July 1852); the first pilot-controlled, heavier-than-air machine to be flight-tested in France and Britain. The fateful last flight by Letur at London’s Cremorne Garden on June 27, 1854 resulted in a fatal accident. The story is told in the references differently, nevertheless, the machine was suspended below the balloon of William Adam which was intended to get the “parachute-dirigeable” to the required height, but was almost immediately seized by heavy winds. The balloon did not get much height and bounced the machine over the obstacle-littered ground with poor Letur fastened by ropes to his seat. Fatally wounded, he lived only a few hours after the balloon and machine came back to earth to a complete stop.

Peterson Monoplane of 1910.
Canadian Edward C. Peterson piloting his own modified Blériot XI type copy across Kelly’s race track at Fort William, Thunder Bay, Ontario, near the corner of Edward and Arthur streets. Reportedly the first monoplane built in Canada, unfortunately on this occasion the plane failed to leave the ground. A later report in 1911 stated Peterson did make a successful flight over the fields at Mission Island.

Bünzli glider of 1908-09.
Built by the “Société de Construction d’Appareils Aériens” in Levallois, based on the design of M. Bünzli. The firm’s specialty, the production of wooden parts, destined the framework to be made entirely of wood. The glider consisted of a pair of V-shaped wings set at an angle of 14 degrees, held into place by elastic cords attached to the top and the bottom of the frame. The underside of the frame had an ingenious slide construction that made it possible to move the pilot seat forwards and backwards. Cords were fixed at levers mounted on the elevator, which were then fastened to the moveable pilot chair, which in turn controlled the elevator at the back of the glider. When the pilot slid forward in his seat, the elevator turned down, lowering the nose of the glider. When sliding backwards the opposite happened as the elevator went up assisted by a spring device. Its wing area, the surfaces covered with balloon fabric, totalled 20 square meters; and weighing only about 36 kg, the length of the machine was 5.60 meters, its span 7 meters. It is said that better flights were made with this glider than with the machine of Chanute.

Wellman-Vaniman Airship “America”.
Rescue of the “America” photographed from the SS Trent on October 18, 1910, 72 hours and 1000 miles into the Trans-Atlantic voyage by Chicago newspaperman-explorer Walter Wellman, aero-pioneer Melvin Vaniman, four crewmen and one stowaway cat. It was an audacious attempt, especially considering that it was also this particular airship’s first (and last) flight. No test flights of any description were undertaken. Originally the 1906 Godard-designed, French-built polar exploration airship, the “America” had already been rebuilt and enlarged twice by the time it was lost at sea.

Andrews Flying Ship “Aereon” of 1863.
First American dirigible airship invented by Dr. Solomon Andrews of Perth Amboy, New Jersey. On August 9, 1862, Dr. Andrews wrote to US President Lincoln suggesting he could produce an aerostat to aid the armies of the Union. Constructed to demonstrate the capabilities of his invention, it was flown four times during the period from June through until September 4, 1963. Motor-less yet able to navigate against the wind using lift force and ballast to ascend and descend while traveling horizontally. To understand how the “Aereon” could have made a round trip of twenty or thirty miles to reconnoitre the Confederate army positions and report back to the Union army commanders, it’s necessary to understand that the “Aereon”, by compartmentalizing the gas and stiffening the three gasbags, was built into a gliding wing that could be tilted upwards and downwards slightly by moving the center of gravity in the car forward or aft. The flying ship “flew” by pointing it in the direction you wish to go and then dumping ballast, causing it to go shooting off on a flat trajectory as it ascends. By using this difference in specific gravity between the balloon and the surrounding atmosphere as its propulsion, once the “Aereon” reached its maximum allowable or favourable height, the pilot then vented gas causing the craft to glide downward. This could be repeated as long as the gas and ballast hold out.

Forssman Lenkballon of 1911.
First ascent of the Forssman dirigible balloon, on January 13, 1911 at Gerstenhofen, north of Augsburg. In 1910, Villehad Henrik Forssman (1884–1944) had graduated from the Riga Polytechnic Institute as a mechanical engineer and then moved to Germany that same year. Thereabouts, the flamboyant Swede had been contracted by the Russian army to deliver a dirigible and was there to be used for intelligence services, which was constructed at “August Riedinger Ballonfabrik” in Augsburg. It is not known whether or not the Russian military ever took delivery of the airship. The diminutive dirigible was only 35 meters long with a maximum diameter of 6 meters, and held 800 cubic meters of hydrogen gas. It could be dismantled very quickly and just as fast, later be ready to fly. Because of lift-force limitations a gondola was not available, only a single bench seat with the engine, where the pilot and even a mechanic had a place to sit. The 28 hp motor, which was also built by engineer Forssman, weighed only 38 kg, and that of the cooling device 4 1/2 kg. Reportedly the entire craft weighed 450 kg and capable of attaining a maximum speed of 43 km/h.

Lauer L.II “Dädalus”.
A German school biplane built in spring 1912, powered by a 55 hp Argus. Richard Lauer operated a small automobile factory in Halle/Saale and had built a monoplane in 1910. In 1912 he built this biplane and was permitted to test the aircraft at the Exerzierfeld Halle-Beesen, where he managed “some long flights”. He also set up a hangar and wanted to open a flight school that summer but unfortunately he crashed and destroyed the aircraft in June. Lauer suffered severe injuries that presumably prevented him from ever flying again.

Etrich VIII Luft-Limousine (Fluglimousine) 1912.
The Etrich Limousine made its maiden flight on May 7, 1912 at Josefstadt, Austria. It was the first passenger aircraft with a completely enclosed seating cabin. Igo Etrich had established the “Aeroplan Bau Gewerbe” in his home town of Trautenau, and at the airfield in Josefstadt - only few kilometres south of Trautenau - developed his new constructions: the Taube-Limousine and Schwalbe. The airplane had very successful flight characteristics and made many flights.

Vlach Monoplane No.4.
The Vlach No.4 was the first successful Czech aircraft, including its Czech engine, a 38 hp Laurin & Klement type L. Metoděj Vlach was born on July 6, 1887 at Říkovice near Přerov, Bohemia. After studying at a secondary school he went to work at Maribor, a train manufacturing company and then on to the firm Puch (Steier), a company producing cars. Beginning in 1908 he was employed as the chief mechanic at Laurin & Klement in Mladá Boleslav where his first airplane, an underpowered biplane, was built. His No.4 was already started in 1911 and together with helpers Vítek and Ševit the new monoplane was finished in the summer of 1912 and exhibited at the Mladoboleslavská severočeská výstava (Northern Czech Mlada Boleslav Exposition), there winning the Gold medal.

Copetta Monoplane “El Burrito”.
The first four airplanes constructed in Chile, were designed and built by the Copetta brothers. The first of them flew in 1911 and its name was “El Burrito” (young donkey). This airplane followed the lines of the Blériot IX in some way and was built in the necessity to fly after the irreparable destruction of their Voisin biplane, brought originally from France. Irregardless of it being the first, “El Burrito” bore on its tail the inscription “Copetta 2”, since in those years it was common to put the name of the pilot and constructor; in this case Copetta and Copetta.

Sloane Biplane of 1912.
Australian tractor biplane designed and constructed by Douglas Sloane (1890-1917). The engine was also of his own design and one of the things that held him up in his attempt to fly. Despite the stage of progress seen in this photo, the plane was eventually covered. It was towed behind a car to give it extra power but the engine just didn’t have the muscle. However the plane did manage a short hop at “Dick’s Plain” swamp in late April 1912. Douglas Sloane was killed in an RE8 of 69 (Australian) Sqdn RFC headed for France on August 21, 1917. With it was 2AM Sloane (observer/gunner), piloted by 2nd Lt FG Shapira. Having some engine trouble, they landed to have it rectified. This was done and after lunch they set off again. The plane reached about 600 feet when the nose suddenly dropped and it went into a spin from which it never recovered. Shapira and Sloane were the first active service casualties of the squadron.

Šoštarko Monoplane.
1911-12 monoplane of Austro-Hungarian/Croatian origin built by Slavoljub Šoštarko in Zagreb (Agram), Croatia - then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Šoštarko was probably an automobile racer who crossed over to airplane design and flying, but when his monoplane was exhibited in Zagreb in 1912, it was destroyed during his very first attempt at flight. There is no evidence that Šoštarko flew after this. As one of a few others who were experimenting right next to the sheds of Mihajlo Mercep at the gates of Zagreb, to be expected, the Šoštarko monoplane shows some resemblance to the Mercep Rusjan-Novak monoplanes; i.e. wing-posts, tail assembly with rudder running through the stabilizer, etc.

Kolbányi Monoplane Type V.
Second of two monoplanes built by Hungarian aviation pioneer Kolbányi Géza in 1912. A two-seater characterized by its very long vertical stabilizer stretching along the fuselage, the Kolbányi V monoplane was fatally crashed in October 1912, owing to a break of the wing structure, in which the pilot and sole occupant Takács Sándornak was killed.


278 bis
G.E.F.A. Eindecker.
A construction of “Gesellschaft für Flugmaschinen- und Apparatenbau” at Bonn-Hangelar; designed and built by Dr. Josef Hoos - a “Kölner” - and a flyer since 1911. Similar monoplanes were built in “some” numbers during 1910-13, with various engines and used by the Hoos flying school up until 1914 - at first in Cologne and from December 1913 in Bonn-Hangelar. The earlier G.E.F.A. eindeckers (of 1911/12) had a small rudder, the later rudders were larger. This example, probably a later model with a partially covered fuselage, is shown at Hangelar Flugplatz in early 1914 with flight-student Albert Leick seated.

Unidentified Eindecker of 1911 at Cologne.
Probably photographed at the Butzweiler farm airfield, what is almost certainly a machine by Jean Hugot or Bruno Werntgen, to name but two possibles among a small group of very early Kölner aviators. Powered with what is most likely a Delfosse three-cylinder radial engine - a copy of the Anzani W “fan” - developing about 25 hp. [*]

Blériot Type XL of 1913.
Looking superficially like a Henry Farman pusher biplane; it differed noticeably from the HF by its undercarriage, nacelle and oval rudder. The machine was first presented in May at Salon de Turin, then later exhibited at the Paris Salon, but remained a singular example. It can also be found numbered arabically as the Blériot 40.

Wallbro Monoplane of 1910.
All-British aeroplane constructed by brothers Percy Valentine & Horace Samuel Wallis in the shed at the rear of their parents’ house in Cambridge with ‘offices’ of the Wallbro Aeroplane Co. in their bedroom overlooking the rear garden. By May 1910, it was complete and was put on display to the public. On July 4, 1910, the brothers made their first tentative ‘hop’ near Abington, where the machine had been brought to be housed. A complete and detailed description of the craft can be found in the Thursday, May 12, 1910 edition of the CAMBRIDGE DAILY NEWS.
More  The Wallis's ~ The Complete Story  
more  http://www.wallisandson.co.uk/company.html

Ellehammer Standard Monoplane of 1910.
This machine has sometimes been called “Ellehammer VI”, and while the aircraft was capable of flight, its performance was rather modest, and as a consequence was nicknamed “graesslaamaskinen” (the grass cutting machine, or “Lawn-mower”) in the newspaper Ekstrabladet. With a six-cylinder Ellehammer radial engine and triangular fuselage shape in typical Ellehammer style, the ribs including the cloth could be pushed inboard along the main spar, which then could be folded along the fuselage. The main spars are still in transverse position in this photograph; believed to have been taken at “Kløvermarken” in 1910. Frederik Moltke (very likely somewhere in the photo) was to compete with this machine for the first crossing-flight over the Øresund to Sweden. Unfortunately the airplane was not ready when Robert Svendsen had then already overflew the waters.

Wenk Hängegleiter of 1909.
A 16-year old Friedrich Wenk built this glider at Blaubeuren and flew it at Allmendingen. In 1920 he designed the Wenk-Peshkes flying wing sailplanes, and then, among many other works, the “Weltensegler” flying wings. Later, the wings for “Moazagotl” and “Minimoa”. Dr. Wenk died in 1966.

Khevenhüller Schwingengleiter of 1913.
A wing-flapping glider built and tested with moderate success by early Austrian experimenter and nobleman Graf Georg Khevenhüller at his castle, Burg Hochosterwitz, in Kärnten. Khevenhüller had begun in 1905 with a glider he himself built and in 1911, to further his experiments, the Count partnered with Franz Xaver Wels. From here the bar was set higher: to realize a glider with flapping wings. A machine seems to have been built, yet it was not successful and the men parted company soon after. In 1913 Count Khevenhüller built his last Schwingenflieger (as photographed), without any help of Wels. The machine had a weight of 50 kg and was constructed from bamboo, metal tubing and the wings of duralumin and balloon silk. The Count had the idea to flap the 12 meter span wings using human power, whereby a pulley construction was devised so that a person could beat the wings and hold the machine in the air. To give the glider its needed initial speed, a launching railway of 40 meters was laid down with a maximum slope of 20 degrees on the eastern part of Burg Hochosterwitz. Although this aircraft purportedly flew up to 100 meters in October 1913, all the attempts failed to make more than one flap of the wings, partly because of the instability of the machine in the air. After a severe crash, further attempts to fly the machine were halted and apparently remains preserved at Hochosterwitz.  MORE  

Cutting Aeroplane.
South African biplane of original design constructed in Johannesburg by J. H. “Harry” Cutting with the help of friends Jimmy Cloughly, Ernest Miles and Sammy Samuels. The machine was built in Cutting’s workshop out of steel tubes, aluminium, covered with linen and powered by a 12 hp air-cooled two-cylinder J.A.P. V-engine driving a locally-manufactured aluminium propeller. Construction was started on August 22, 1908, and while several attempts to fly the plane were made prior to its three month-long public exhibition commencing in December 1909, the machine, although being capable of a fair speed along the ground, would not take off owing to a lack of engine power. When the plane was displayed next to the Empire Theatre in Johannesburg it was called “Carter’s Aeroplane”. Carter claimed he was awaiting a more powerful engine and would replace the canvas with silk to lighten his machine. Herbert Carter was a boxer by profession and most likely had purchased the aeroplane, but nothing more was heard of it after the exhibition closed down on February 26, 1910.

Moreau Aérostable No.2.
A De Dion-Bouton “Vis-à-vis” automobile towing a “Frères Moreau Aéroplane a stabilisation automatique” in 1911 at Combs-la-Ville. Different than other machines built by brothers Jules Albert & André Moreau, the No.2 was equipped with a Gnôme engine and the wings do not seem to be covered of silk, but with emaillit.

Rougé Aéro-voile of 1911.
Fourth construction of Emmanuel de Rougé; and piloted by Sadi Lecointe (1891-1944) who obtained French civil brevet No. 431 on February 10, 1911. Before this machine, the industrious de Rougé designed and built two helicopters and one biplane. The Aéro-voile is probably his last venture as after this machine little or nothing was heard of de Rougé.

Grohmann Eindecker of 1911.
1910/11 two-seater monoplane of Dipl.-Ing. Karl Grohmann, with a high-positioned “Zanonia” wing and a fully open fuselage. It was powered by a 50 hp Argus engine, which drove the tractor screw via a chain. Immediately on its first flight the machine flew 300 meters. Later Grohmann built a single seat development of the 1911 machine. Sometimes the two-seater is identified as the Grohmann I and the single-seater as the Grohmann II, but this is probably a spurious coding introduced years after the event. Karl Grohmann later worked at Albatros (Johannisthal) where he was involved in the design of, among others, the Doppeltaube. During the War he was Chefkonstrukteur (chief-designer) of the Ostdeutsche Albatros-Werke (OAW) in Schneidemühl (Posen).

Clément Ader Avion III Aquilon of 1897.
Restoration preserved at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris; the third “Avion” (after Eole and Zéphyr) built by Clément Ader (with the help of Ing. Morel). Trials of Avion III began at the Satory army base near Versailles on October 12, 1897, with the aircraft taxiing along a circular track. The first flight was attempted on October 14 and most sources agree that it ended almost immediately in a crash without ever leaving the ground, beyond which the “Ministère de la guerre” ceased to contribute further funding towards its research.

Gallaudet Model B Flying Boat.
Gallaudet’s second aircraft, the Model B monoplane flying boat, continued the arrangement of an engine enclosed in the fuselage driving remote propellers, in this case a pusher propeller behind that trailing edge of each wing panel. The Model B was flown several times during 1913 and 1914 with several different engines, but does not appear to have been particularly successful.

Heaton airship California Messenger.
George E. Heaton’s 1904/05 Oakland/Bay-area airship, the California Messenger, making its first trial on December 2, 1904, at a field in East Oakland (north of the Tidal Canal, east of 23rd Ave.). At Idora Park during the following February it was on the California Messenger which world-renowned birdman Lincoln Beachey made his first powered-flight.

Preble-Rekar Airship.
Never-completed 250 foot rigid airship, 24 feet in diameter, under construction during 1909-1910 by the Preble-Rekar Airship Company of Portland, Oregon.

The Exhibition Era of Early Aviation in Oregon, 1910-1915

Saru-Ionescu Monoplane of 1911.
Powered by a 25 hp Anzani, tests of this machine were conducted between July 22 and August 28, 1911, at Cotroceni, Romania. Nicolae Saru was a bank clerk who as Ionescu, in his free time and out of his own pocket, realized this machine. Unfortunately Saru was the only person available to fly the aeroplane, but had no flying experience. Therefore, after a few minor mishaps which could be repaired, he finally wrecked the machine on August 28, 1911. Lacking the money to (re)build a new monoplane he left aviation.

Pilâtre de Rozier “La Rozière” of 1785.
First hot-air/hydrogen balloon.
(description and details pending)

combinaison hélium / air chaud 

Qu'est-ce qu'une rozière?       

Le grand aéroplane Solirène.
Built during 1903/1904 by Solirène and son from Montpellier, but never flown due to financial problems.

Les Expériences de MM. Solirène  page 16   
MM. Solirène nous montrent un bel exemple de ce que peuvent donner la ténacité et la continuité dans l'action. Persuadés comme tant d'autres que l'heure du plus lourd que l'air  allait arriver, espérant peut-être aussi être encouragés par leurs concitoyens, MM. Solirène, préparateurs à l'Ecole Supérieure de Pharmacie de Montpellier, entreprennent en 1903, la construction du gigantesque oiseau reproduit ci-contre .
Mais personne ne les aide et, l'année suivante, les fonds devenant rares, ils sont obligés d'arrêter le travail... lire la suite

... Autour de Montpellier, aucun terrain favorable... Puisque le terrain ne s'y prête pas, ils vont imaginer et construire un engin de départ. Ils élèvent un pylône de 12 mètres de haut,
au bord de la mer à Palavas.

...Au signal, l'aéroplane prend son esisor; à mi-hauteur, croyant le moment favorable et trouvant surtout qu'il n'est pas assez soutenu, Solirène exécute un recul de tout le corps en arrière. L'aéroplane se relève un peu et s'appuie davantage sur l'air ; mais à ce moment, le pied-droit auquel sont attachés tous les haubans de l'aile droite casse et l'aviateur tombe assez rudement sur le côté, la profondeur de l'eau (0,30) n'étant pas suffisante pour amortir la chute...

Les avaries réparées, M. Solirène n'écoute que son courage et recommence le 23 août 1905....

Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Company Biplane.
1913 Thomas Bros. three-seat nacelle pusher biplane, powered by a 90 hp Austro-Daimler engine.

Sikorsky Helicopter No.2 of 1910.
Also known as the S-2; an identification later designated. Powered by the same Anzani 3-cylinder of 25 hp as in the No.1. Developing lift force using contra-rotating three-bladed rotors, reportedly it could almost lift itself.

Wolf-Becher Triplane Glider.
Triplane duo-seat glider designed and built in 1909 by Carl Wolf and August Becher, variously described as being from Oakland, California or Fitchberg, California. The aircraft is said to have made flights of up to 200 feet when launched from a specially built inclined ramp, 50 feet in height. Wingspan: 19' 8"; wing area of 220 sq ft.

Pearse Monoplane.
Retouched photograph of replica on Richard Pearse Memorial at Waitohi, New Zealand.

Richard Pearse From Wikipedia 

Pomar Monoplane of 1908.
Of Peruvian aviation pioneer Carlos Tenaud Pomar.


Aéroplane Pompéïen of 1900.
As presented at the Exposition Internationel 1900 in Paris; probably “No. 2” of Jean-Claude Pompéïen-Piraud.
Aéroplane et propulseur Pompéien .pdf  (Jean-Claude POMPEIEN-PIRAUD)

Wölfert Airship “Deutschland”.
The invention of Dr. Karl Wölfert; an 800 cubic meter capacity non-rigid dirigible, driven by an internal combustion Daimler gasoline motor of 8 hp. Wölfert made ascensions on “Deutschland” at Tempelhof-Berlin on August 28 and 29, 1896 and on March 6, 1897, but did not have a lot of success navigating his machine. On June 12, 1897, an exhibition of “Deutschland” in front of government dignitaries and military men ended disastrously. Carrying Dr. Wölfert and his mechanic Robert Knabe, the airship rose to 200 meters and was suddenly engulfed in flame, dashing both men to their death. The airship was the first to have an accident involving the combustion of the hydrogen lift gas resulting in fatalities.

In 1880, Karl Wölfert and Ernst Georg August Baumgarten attempted to fly a powered airship in free flight, but crashed.
In 1888, Wölfert flew a Daimler-built petrol engine powered airship at Seelburg.
Wölfert airship Deutschland  .jpg

Robertson “Flotille Aérostatique”.
Eugène Robertson gas balloon, ascending from the Castle Garden at the Battery in New York, October 10, 1826. Robertson made many early ascensions in North America, with flights made at New York and New Orleans between 1825 and 1836. He also made early flights in the Antilles (1828 at La Havana) and in Mexico (1835 Mexico City and Veracruz). He died of yellow fever in Veracruz in 1838. His father and his brother Dimitri were also well-known balloonists.

Compañia Universal de Navegación Aérea Flying Machine.
Part of a central section of the “Multíptero” or “Flugilarillo” of the Catalonian inventor Cristóbal Juandó y Rafecas, dated circa 1901/1902
CRISTÒFOL JUANDÓ I RAFECAS ***** .pdf (1848-1917) Albert Tubau i García

Paulhan “Machine à voler” of 1910.
 Louis Paulhan  
***** .pdf
Louis Paulhan  est surtout connu comme l'un des meilleurs pilotes de l'époque. Par contre il n'a pas eu de grands succès en tant que constructeur d'avions. !!!

Watres Monoplane “The Grass Cutter”.
Designed and constructed by Reyburn Watres of Scranton, Pennsylvania, in 1910. Powered by a vertical type motor of four cylinders; Watres flew his aircraft a number of times, primarily at his airfield in the Lake Wallenpaupack region.

  The Tribune-Republican