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Copy of Breguet’s Pre-1914 Aircraft Challenge™ amended by  

Breguet’s Pre-1914 Aircraft Challenge™ related forum discussions and further details concerning these aerial machines can be found at http://www.theaerodrome.com/forum/pioneer-aviation/.  & History of Airplanes Photos and summaries of historical aircraft   &  wright-brothers.org 

retour-back  Les tout-premiers, aviateurs, performances, records..., revues - The first airmen, performance, record ..., journal

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L’Aviateur of Louis-Étienne Roze.
(description and details pending)

Essener Flugmaschine.
(description and details pending)

Hartung Monoplane Nr 3.
Third of four aircraft built by carpenter Albert Hartung in his workshop at Quedlinburg.

Rüb Schaufelrad Flugzeug.
(description and details pending)

Hammer & Krollmann Eindecker of 1912.
(description and details pending)


Augustus Herring’s Chanute-style Powered Hang Glider of 1898.
(description and details pending)

Reichelt Wearable Parachute.
Franz Reichelt, the flying tailor, made a fateful, fatal fall from the Eiffel Tower demonstrating his device in 1912.

Le Prieur-Aihara Glider of 1909.
AKA the Aihara-Le Prieur, built by Japanese Lieutenant Shiro Aihara and French 2nd Lieutenant Le Prieur using bamboo for the structure, the duo made gliding tests with a towing automobile in December 1909 at Ueno Park, Toyko. This was the first glider flight in Japan.

1913 Robiola Idromultiplano.
(description and details pending)

Aerostato Santa Cruz / Dirigível Santa Cruz of José do Patrocínio of 1901.

(description and details pending)

Coandă-Joachim-Caproni Glider.
(description and details pending)

Schudeisky Eindecker.
Walter Schudeisky tried his luck with Rumpler before he building a monoplane on his own in Bremen. Trials were made, piloted by Adolf Renzel, in 1911.

Bristol-Halberstadt Taube I.
Militär Schule eindecker built in 1913, powered by a 100 hp Mercedes DI engine. Its four-wheeled undercarriage was copy of the undercarriage employed by Bristol aeroplanes

Martin Pusher Biplane of 1910.
Glenn L. Martin had built a Curtiss-type pusher in 1909 powered by a Ford engine with which he taught himself to fly. In 1910 there followed another machine (biplane shown) with a slightly larger upper wing, interplane ailerons, a triangular stabilizer at the front rudder and a 50 hp Hall-Scott engine with which he set a few flight records of distance, duration and altitude in 1910.

Santos-Dumont No.15 Biplane of 1907.
100 hp Antoinette-powered tractor biplane with sharp dihedral wings similar to No.14 bis, although made of wood instead of fabric and with elevators on the outer forward corners of these planes. Its biplane empennage was enclosed by two vertical panels and acted as both an elevator and rudder, being mounted on a universal joint at the end of bamboo outriggers. Trials of S-D No.15 began March 22, 1907 and ended five days later when the machine collapsed while taxiing before a flight attempt. No successful flights appear to have been made.
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Zodiac X Airship “Capitaine Ferber”.
Third and final configuration of the non-rigid French military airship first flown on December 6, 1911 named in honour of pioneer aviator Capitaine Ferdinand Ferber. Of 76 meters length and of 12.4 meters maximum diameter, the 6000 m³ Zodiac X, here shown in its hangar at Epinal, had a maximum speed of 60 km/h powered by two Dansette-Gillet engines of 100 hp, each driving two propellers. Perhaps the most successful French airship of 1912-13, “Capitaine Ferber” was deleted in 1914 prior to the outbreak of WWI.

Le premier breveté militaire : Le capitaine Ferdinand Ferber, du 19ème régiment d’artillerie, qui commença à voler sur un aéroplane à moteur à explosions, fut le premier militaire a être breveté * par l’Aéroclub de France.

Ferber Biplane No.IX of 1908.
Aeroplane of bamboo construction by French Army Capitaine Ferdinand Ferber also known as the Antoinette III, and powered by an Antoinette motor of 50 hp. On September 22, 1909 at Boulogne, while preparing for a cross-channel attempt, Capitaine Ferber, b.1862, was killed on this machine when after a half-hour flight it overturned when it struck a mound during its landing.

Ezekiel Airship of 1902.
(description and details pending)

Blanc and Barlatier Aeroplane of 1907.
(description and details pending)

1908 Blanc et Barlatier monoplane
Country of Origin: France Designed and built by Barlatier and Blanc
Span: 46' Length: 31'2" Weight: 530 lb
Picture from www.ctie.monash,edu.au


Bokor Triplane of 1909.
As seen at Morris Park, N.Y., winner of the first money prize in America for design and workmanship independent of performance - a $500 prize awarded by the Aeronautic Society of New York in 1909 - even though it failed to fly. In light of the triplane’s inability to leave the earth, Morris Bokor made changes to his design and took the machine to Arlington, New Jersey, where it won the prize for excellence of construction. There - at the North Arlington Aero Carnival Week of May 25, 1909 which featured Baldwin’s airship, his newest California Arrow, and two aeroplanes, the other that of the Mexican revolutionary Victor Ochoa - the Hungarian Bokor made an attempt at flight but could only manage a top speed of 12 mph while running along an unpaved road. The triplane was subsequently taken to Westbury, Long Island, but it never did get off the ground.

Botts Flying Machine of 1903.
(description and details pending)

Monoplano Latino America.
Claimed to be the first powered aeroplane built in Mexico (a claim sometimes made for all of Latin America), by Juan Guillermo Villasana, Santiago Poveregsky and Carlos Leon in 1912. Suggested not to be a direct copy of a Deperdussin, but except for the uncovered fuselage shown here, they may be indistinguishable.

Anthony Wireless Airship of 1909.
(description and details pending)

Bracke Monoplane.
This monoplane was designed by Belgian engineer Albert Bracke, assisted by Monsieur Misson. The date is not given, but estimated as 1912-1913. Its engine was a 40 hp Anzani driving a 2.15 meter Chavière propeller.

Fity Folding-wing Monoplane of 1911.
An American machine, this monoplane had folding wings, with the idea to drive the machine as a car on the ground using its elaborate 4-wheel undercarriage. It probably did not fly.

Glück II Monoplane.
As seen on the Cannstatter Wasen, Stuttgart, Würtemberg, in 1911. Adam Glück (1886-1966) who with Vollmöller, Heinkel, and Hirth, was one of the pioneers who flew at Canstatter Wasen before the War, and was a “Kriegsflieger” during the War.

Schädler Brothers Human-powered Aeroplane of 1912.
(description and details pending)

Berry Airship of 1907.
John Berry (1849-1931) was an inventor, mechanic, car-dealer, and builder of balloons in St. Louis who in 1907 was slated to race his airship in the dirigible races held in conjunction with the Gordon Bennett balloon race. For unknown reasons it was never tried and no photos of it are known to exist. This photograph shows the patented airship mechanism without the gas bag. Berry made his first balloon flight on a smoke balloon, in 1862 at the age of 13 from Rochester, N.Y., and his first gas balloon flight the following year. “The Dean of American Aeronauts”, Capt. Berry made more than 500 balloon flights during his aeronautical career which lasted sixty years; his last flight taking place in 1922.

Dinelli Aereoplano Glider.
(description and details pending)

Monnier Harper Lygia Hydro-aeroplane.
(description and details pending)

Ben Epps Monoplane of 1907.
Early American monoplane designed and built by Benjamin Thomas Epps in Athens, Georgia. This machine is quoted as being the first heavier-than-air aeroplane in history that flew south of the Mason-Dixon Line.

Ludlow Aeroplane No.12.
Israel Ludlow’s Jamestown Exposition Glider on floats during its unsuccessful trials on Hampton Roads, piloted by the aeronaut Capt. T. T. Lovelace and towed by the tug Potomac on August 21, 1907.

Gallaudet Kite of 1898.
Built by Edson Fessenden Gallaudet, an engineer (PhD) and then working as a physics instructor at Yale, this hydro-bike kite was built to test wing-warping controlled by a system of gears and rods. Its wingspan was 11 and ½ feet, its length just over eight feet. The original is currently on display at the Early Flight Gallery in the National Air and Space Museum.

Hanuschke Eindecker Model 1912 “Populaire II”.
German monoplane distinguished by its completely bare triangular tube fuselage fitted with a 50 hp rotary Gnôme engine.

Scott 16-disc Helicopter.
(description and details pending)

Gonzales No.1 Tractor Biplane.
Built by brothers Willy and Arthur Gonzales during the period 1910 through 1912, this biplane was built in the backyard of their home and flew successfully in the San Francisco Bay area. The machine was donated by the Gonzales family to the Jimmy Doolittle Air and Space Museum Education Foundation.

Bland Mayfly of 1910.
First “Mayfly” of Lilian Bland tested as a glider in the area of Belfast, Northern Ireland, probably during February 1910. It was built after the 1909 Blackpool meet and was an amalgam of the Farman and Wright types seen there. Likely the first woman to build as well as fly her own aeroplane, Bland developed it empirically, testing and modifying it as a kite and glider before putting a 20 hp engine in it. But Lilian couldn’t sell her constantly modified “Mayfly” and gave it to the Aero Club of Dublin before marrying and leaving for Canada. Its span was 8.40 m and constructed in less than three months.

Baku Technical College Monoplane.
Built by a group of students at the polytechnic school of Baku (today Azerbaijan) in 1910. Obviously based on Blériot’s famous monoplane, albeit a little smaller.

Westdeutsche Piloten-Schule (W.P.S.) Eindecker.
1913 version with plywood fuselage. W.P.S. was located in Krefeld during 1913

Röver Eindecker.
Hans Röver (1890-1917), the son of an organ builder, received his technical training from Hans Grade in Bork. There he also earned his flying licence (Nr.56 on February 3, 1911). Leaving with a Grade Monoplane he flew at a few competitions with the goal to earn enough money to built his own aircraft. This was realised in 1912 - the elegant Röver Monoplane with circular body covered with glue-laminated fabric for what Ernst Röver, his father, was granted German Patent Nr. 271112. This monoplane was entered into meets in Johannisthal twice that year, with only minor success. In 1913 Hans Röver rented a shed at Johannisthal, built a second monoplane, and trained pilots until August 1, 1914. Afterwards he flew for the navy and did not return from a reconnaissance mission in 1917.

Rossel-Peugeot Monoplane of 1910.
Frédéric Rossel, while already working for Peugeot a few years, and with car sales figures depressed at this time, turned his interests to aviation and convinced the Peugeot Brothers to form the “Société Anonyme des constructions aériennes Rossel-Peugeot”. Built by the Reggy frères, who also furnished the propeller, the monoplane was powered by a 50 hp Gnôme rotary engine. The first flight was piloted by Jules Goux - in 1913 the first Frenchman to win the Indianapolis 500 motorcar race - but just 5 minutes into the air the machine lay wrecked on the ground, with Goux unhurt.

Campbell Air Ship.
Powered by an Edison electric motor, its 18,000 cu. ft. envelope supplied by Carl E. Meyers, and built a cost of $2500 by the Novelty Air Ship Company of Brooklyn, N.Y., for Professor Peter C. Campbell; the first flight of which was made December 8, 1888 from Coney Island to Sheepshead Bay, piloted by Carlotta the aeronaut - the wife of Carl Meyers. At this time the motive of power is reported to have been bicycle pedals and multiplying gears. The Campbell Air Ship was lost at sea July 16, 1889 while being flown by Professor E. D. Hogan, a Canadian professional aerobat/parachutist, during an exhibition flight originating from the Nassau Gas Works. Intending to make a trip around New York, then to pass over to New Jersey and into the country, five minutes into the flight the 8 foot diameter lower propeller, with which Hogan was to raise and lower the Air Ship gave way and fell to the ground. To make matters worse, it was observed that the steering propellers did not seem to work as no revolutions were discernible, leaving Hogan at the complete mercy of the wind.

Petin’s Aerial Navigation System of 1851.
“Locomotive Aerostatique Petin a Double Plane de Suspension Stable” designed by Ernest Petin, an example of the “Navigation Aerienne System Petin” and patented by him on May 8, 1848.

Adhémar de la Hault’s second Ornithopter.
In 1908, at the workshops of Julius Miess in Brussels, De la Hault built a lemniscate paddle-wing ornithopter, his No.1, which was tested with encouraging yet unsuccessful results. This was followed by his second attempt in 1910. In the photograph, De la Hault stands second from the right, while helicopter pioneer Henri Villard is seen on the far left. Together with others, De la Hault founded the Aéro Club de Belgique in 1901.

Dittisham Aerostat of 1894.
Designed and built by the Swiss engineer Albert Liwentaal while he was living in Devon, England. The glider was tested twice, and crashed twice. The photograph, the image appearing to have been printed backwards, shows the result of the final trial, which took place near Bozomzeal, above Dittisham, Devon, along the River Dart.

Bartolomeu de Gusmão Hot-air Balloon Model.
Demonstrated by him to the court of King John V of Portugal on August 8, 1709.
Bartholomeu Lourenco de Gusmão, a naturalist and the first aeronaut, was born in 1685 at Santos in the province of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and died on November 18, 1724, in Toledo, Spain.

Burattini’s Flying Dragon.
The Flying Dragon, or “Dragon Volant”, designed by Tito Livio Burattini, an Italian in the service of the Polish King Władysław IV during 17th century. Two models of this machine were built 1647-48; the first, 1.5 m in length, made a flight with a cat on board and according to contemporary sources – it flew. The ship was powered by spring machinery. During a second flight the model crashed because of malfunction of the mechanism. A full scale craft was not built for lack of money; reportedly the Polish King was asked for funding by Burattini, but was refused.

Mohawk Aerial Navigation Company Glider.
One of the gliders built by Charles Proteus Steinmetz - the “Wizard of Schenectady” - and others in 1894. Steinmetz is not well known today but he accomplished a great deal in his lifetime considering he had dwarfism, was hunchback, and had hip dysplasia. While working for General Electric at Schenectady, N.Y., Steinmetz organized a band of fellow flying machine enthusiasts into the Mohawk Aerial Navigation Company, and over the summer of 1894 built and tested a man-carrying kite and two true gliders. None were particularly successful. Digital image: Schenectady Museum & Suits-Bueche Planetarium.

Mouillard’s Glider No.4 of 1878.
Photographed in Cairo, Egypt.

Custead Airship.
Approximately 30 feet long and originally built of bamboo framework. Exactly when Custead started work on it is unclear, but it is known that by the mid-to-late 1890s it was being tested and was, supposedly, making numerous tethered flights inside of a tent that Custead had erected next to his home in Elm Mott, Texas, a small hamlet located just north of Waco. In 1900, backed by a number of Texas and Southern capitalists, Custead formed the Custead Airship Company, and with a capital share stock of $100,000 forged a partnership with Gustav Whitehead of Bridgeport, Conn., later the same year. 
more1 Gustave Whitehead & Acetylene motor

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