mis à jour / updated :

Copy of Breguet’s Pre-1914 Aircraft Challenge™ amended by  

Breguet’s Pre-1914 Aircraft Challenge™ related forum discussions and further details concerning these aerial machines can be found at http://www.theaerodrome.com/forum/pioneer-aviation/.  & History of Airplanes Photos and summaries of historical aircraft  &   wright-brothers.org  &  podniebni.zafriko.pl  

retour-back  Les tout-premiers, aviateurs, performances, records..., revues - The first airmen, performance, record ..., journal

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du Réau Monoplane of 1908.
Designed and built using bicycle tubing by du Réau near Angers, France and tested unsuccessfully by Ernest Clairouin.

Hybrid hot-air/hydrogen Balloon of Francesco Orlandi, first flown in 1825.
Orlandi, the most successful with this type of aerostat, published a treatise on ballooning, suggesting this new design, in 1800. His first flight did not occur until August 30, 1825 after which he made 40 flights. Despite the death in June 1785 of Pilatre de Rozier and Jules Romain in their combination hot-air and hydrogen balloon, experimenters continued to build balloons that combined these elements. The aeronaut Francis Olivari lost his life in one on November 25, 1802, at Orleans, as did Francesco Zambeccari on September 21, 1812, near Boulogne.

Canadian Aerodrome Company Hubbard Monoplane “Mike” designed and built in Canada in 1910.
J. A. D. McCurdy, who had been a member of Alexander Graham Bell’s Aerial Experiment Association, set up the Canadian Aerodrome Company after the AEA was dissolved. Gardiner Hubbard was a cousin of Bell’s wife, Mabel Gardiner Hubbard.
John Alexander Douglas McCurdy 

Schneider No.1. Biplane of Frederick Schneider of 1908.
Shown at an exhibition at Morris Park called by the Aeronautic Society of New York at the end of 1908, where Schneider tested the biplane of 30 ft. span. Among the most notable of its features was a low total weight of only 450 lbs. and the use of three aluminium propellers of variable pitch. The engine, an air-cooled rotary, caused the failure of these flights.  more1 
The Aeronautic Society of New York 

Kvasz II of 1911.
The second monoplane designed and built by Slovakian aviation pioneer András (Andrej) Kvasz (1883-1974) at a Budapest workshop. First flown in August 1911 by Kvasz, powered by an Anzani 3W, 25 hp, later Anzani 3Y, 35 hp and Austro Daimler, 40 hp, 4-cyl. On August 30, 1911, with this monoplane, Kvasz won the Sacellár prize. In November 1911 he organized public flights at Szarvas drawing 40,000 spectators. Kvasz, who worked as an engineer for Aladár Zsélyi in Wiener-Neustadt from 1909 on, started to built his own machines in 1911. This photo most probably shows the aeroplane fitted with a 4-cylinder Austro Daimler engine.

Amiot 01 two-seater Monoplane of 1912.
Designed by Félix Amiot  (more) , a famous designer of the 1920s and 30s, this first Amiot machine was built in a garage in the Quartier des Ternes, Paris during 1913. Test flown in 1913 at Issy-les-Moulinaeux but crashed on the field. Of all-metal construction, whereas Amiot had devised a unique method for fitting hollow metal pipes together; a system of construction that was patented in many countries. Félix Amiot started his firm Amiot - S.E.C.M in 1916, building Bréguet and Morane-Saulnier machines under licence.

A. Vlaicu N° II.
Second machine of the brilliant Rumanian Aurel Vlaicu, (Biography and Career) dating from 1911 (his original machine was from 1910). The most distinguishing feature was the now fully enclosed nacelle. In front of the nacelle was a Gnôme 7-cylinder rotary engine delivering 50 hp, driving the two propellers via a chain. This machine participated in the June 1912 competition at Aspern flying field at Vienna.

FSV 10 glider built by Flug-Sport-Vereinigung Darmstadt and tested on the Wasserkuppe.
Set a World record in 1912 of 838 meters in 112 seconds while flown by Hans Gunthermuth that stood until 1920. A replica of this apparatus can be found at the Deutsche-Segelflug-Museum at Gersfeld/Rhön.

Gillespie Aeroplane of 1905.
Designed by G. Curtis Gillespie and featured on the cover of Scientific American for June 26, 1905.
Trussed frame of light aluminium tubing reinforced by piano wire 24 feet overall with a beam of 10 feet, covered in light duck and steered by two integrated flaps. The motive power consisted of an air-cooled gasoline engine having six cylinders, opposed three to three in a horizontal plane with cranks set an an angle of 60 degrees. The machine’s total weight was 150 pounds, and developed 20 horse-power.
more1 details

Wildeblood Triplane.
Of 46 foot span and fitted with a 35 hp JAP radial motor, this triplane was designed by Henry Seddon Wildeblood and built by the Upper India Motor Company of Lucknow, India, in August 1911. Wildeblood was superintending engineer of the Indian Public Works Department of Mount Abu, Rajputana, India. He studied the flight of birds extensively and on the results of his findings designed models and full-size aircraft which incorporated flexible receding wing-tips, with outer edges rigid in imitation of the feathers of a bird’s wing.

Vasserot Monoplane “Mouette Géante” (Giant Seagull).
Built in 1910 by Jean-Marie Vasserot with the assistance of a carpenter named Louis Houard, who also designed the engine. There is apparently no evidence that it flew successfully, although it is reported by Opdycke to have flown 100 meters at the beach at Cesson on November 13, 1909 as the Vasserot-Delassor Monoplane. Opdycke was most likely mistaken; confusing it with Vasserot’s glider model which made several flights in 1909 from the cliffs at Cesson. M. Delassor is unknown at this time.
***Jean-Marie Vasserot était artiste-peintre de la rue des falaises. Après de brillantes études primaires, secondaires et supérieures, le jeune Jean-Marie sortit de l’école navale comme enseigne de vaisseau. Sans cesse attiré par l’aviation, au cours   de ses temps libres, il se livrait à des premières recherches et il n'avait qu'une envie : devenir aviateur. Construit à   Paris  sous son étroite surveillance , “son” aéroplane qu’il baptisa  “la mouette géante” sortit des ateliers au cours de l’année 1910 et c’est sur l’aérodrome de Cesson en St-Brieuc qu’il devait tenter son premier décollage. copy-paste.

DSL “São Paulo” Monoplane.
First airplane designed and constructed in Brazil - 100% made by Dimitri Sensaud de Lavaud; even the propellers and the engine were manufactured by him. It first flew on January 7, 1910 at Osasco : 6 seconds for 103 meters; also considered to be the first flight by an aircraft of complete South America design and construction.
Museu Municipal de Osasco Dimitri Sensaud De Lavaud 

Feng Rue #2 at the National Aviation Museum in Nanking.
Curtiss-like, but some differences in the front elevator assembly. Feng Rue was tragically killed in a crash occurring 1912.
Fung Joe Guey is another name for Feng Ru.
AKA Fung Joe Guey, Fung Guey, Fung Yuen, Fong Yu, Fung Yu etc.
FUNG RU 1883-1912


Blackburn Mercury III.
Powered by a 50 hp Gnôme rotary engine, probably the 4th example - out of 6 built - as flown by Jack Brereton at Filey in May 1912.

Gakkel-III (Гаккель-III), second Russian airplane flown.
Although recognized by the All Russian Aero-Club as the first aeroplane of Russian design to fly - on May 24, 1910 at Gatchina airfield (Гатчинский аэродром) - it was actually the second aeroplane of Russian design flying; Kudashev in Kiev was the first flying a day before. The most important recognition feature of this aircraft is wing structure without interplane struts.
Yakov Gakkel Modestovich est un des pionniers de l'aviation soviétique avec un rôle dans le développement de l'aviation en Russie. source

Thomas Walker model glider of 1810 as illustrated in his book A Treatise upon the Art of Flying.
The book was first published in 1810, with a second edition appearing in 1831. Republished since and was included within James Means’ 1895 Aeronautical Annual and #3 of the Aeronautical Classics series published by the Royal Aeronautical Society in 1910.


RAS Monoplane of 1910.
Built in England, the name RAS came from the initials of the three London men who were responsible for the flying machine: Mr Reader, a barman; Mr Allen, a bricklayer; and Mr Sheffield, a chauffeur. The person in the pilot’s seat is Oswyn George William Gifford Lywood, who eventually became an Air Vice Marshal in the Royal Air Force.

Page of Mr Herbert Sheffield, the S of the RAS Monoplane Company.

D´Angelis Biplane designed by C. D’Angelis of Madras, India.

Swedish Ask-Nyrop Monoplane No.1 “Gräshoppan” (Grasshopper) of 1910, built by Oskar Ask and Hjalmar Nyrop in Landskrona.

Rhodes Aeroplane of 1910.
Project of Lieutenant Albert Rhodes and Major George Gossman, who were based at Fort Barrancas, Pensacola, Florida.

Forlanini semi-rigid airship F.1 “Leonardo da Vinci” built in 1909 by Enrico Forlanini of Milan, Italy.

Robert Esnault-Pelterie REP 2, built in 1909.

“American” designed and built by David A. Palmgren displayed at the Grand Central Palace Aero Exhibition, New York, in May 1912.

Ferguson Monoplane.
Constructed by Henry George “Harry” Ferguson in 1909. Ferguson was an Irish citizen (Belfast) and this machine is quoted as the first Irish machine flown. The machine was rebuilt and flown in 1911 and 1912. Ferguson first flew his design with 35 hp J.A.P. engine on December 31, 1909.

Lohner Pfeilflieger Sporttype 1912 - or Type “Hold”.
Of this light arrow-biplane with 85 hp Hiero engine two copies were built. One for the k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe got the name “Cyklon”. A second model (seen here) was sold to Herman Hold. It could be fitted with wheels or floats. This photo was taken when Hold flew the aircraft at the Adriatic See at Portorož (today Slovenia) in 1913.

Reissner Ente (Wellblech Ente).
F/F 23 May, 1912, in second form after having been rebuilt (in the third form, it got four fins under the mainplane). Prof. Dr. Hans Reißner built this canard in the experimental workshop of Junkers that was connected to the “Technische Hochschule Aachen”. According to G. Schmitt several versions were built and also flown. The Swiss Robert Gsell presented the machine over a few weeks in Johannisthal at the end of 1912.

Bulot Triplane of 1909.
Machine designed by Belgian Walther Bulot and entered the at the “Semaine de l’Aviation” in Tournai (Sept. 5-14, 1909), but pictures only show it on the ground.

Schroth ED.
Built at the Mars cycles factory in Nürnberg and flown at Brunn (near Nürnberg).

Koolhoven Heidevogel.
First plane built by Koolhoven in 1911

Pietschker Taube.
Monoplane designed by Alfred Pietschker who died flying it on 15 November, 1911.

Yamada No.1.
Japanese airship of 1600 m3 capacity and powered by one 14 hp automobile engine. Distinguishable from the No.2 by the larger under-fin. Built 1909/10.

Wright 1909 Military Flyer.
Modified version of the first military heavier-than-air flying machine.

Albatros SZ 1 sport biplane with 70 hp Gnôme, built for Alfred Pietschker in 1911. Span 10 m, max. speed 85 km/h .

Sablatnig Baby.
First aircraft of Carinthian Dr. Josef Sablatnig, built and flown in 1911 in Austria.

Ocenasek Monoplane.
Built by the Bohemian pioneer Ludvík Očenášek (1872-1949) in 1910. It was powered by a 50 hp rotary and is sometimes mentioned as “2-seater monoplane” - derived from a Blériot.

Battaille Triplane of Belgian designer César Battaille and built during the course of 1910-11. It was equipped with variable incidence upper and lower wings. F/F 16 August, 1911.

Anzani Monoplane.
Anzani built his plane in 1909, the same year he took up flying a Voisin type machine. The Anzani had a span of 8 meters and was powered by a 3 cylinder Anzani engine with a belt drive to the propeller. Project had limited success and was financed by de Mas .

Steffen Monoplane (possible).

Le “Danton” - Danton Biplane designed by Denhaut.
Denhaut designed it in 1910, Espinosa built it, Eugène Marie Pierre Frédéric Danton (1874-1929) paid for it, Victor Fumat bought it. Engine was a 6 cylinder 50 hp fan Lemasson.

Merćep-Rusjan Monoplane of 1910.
Designed by Edvard and Josip Rusjan together with Mihajlo Merćep.

Prince de Nissole Sesquiplane.
Zodiac monoplane No.2, known as L’Albatros was ordered by the Prince de Nissole and built in 1910 in France.

Usuelli U.1 of 1909.
3970 m3 non-rigid airship designed by Celestino Usuelli, 51 meters long with a maximum diameter of 9.8 meters. Construction of the U.1 was started in 1909 although it probably didn’t make its first flight until 1910 at Turin. Powered by one SPA of 100 hp driving two propellers.

Giovanni Agusta glider of 1910.

 1907  source
Costruzioni Aeronautiche Giovanni Agusta SpA. Foundations of the company were laid in 1907, when Giovanni Agusta built his first airplane. Several more built before First World War. Firm revived 1923, specializing in light aircraft; Ag.2 of 1927 was a small parasol monoplane, AZ-10 twin-engined civil transport of 1954 was designed by Filippo Zappata (noted for his work with CANT and Breda). After Second World War built fixed-wing four-seater. In 1952 Agusta was granted a license to build Bell Model 47 helicopters. First Agusta-built example flew May 1954, and over 1,200 were built before production ended in mid- 1970s. The company also produced Bell Iroquois models as Agusta-Bell 204B and 205, twin-engined Model 212 (still offered as AB-212 Naval/Skyshark) and Model 206 JetRanger (still offered as AB-206B JetRanger III) helicopters. In 1967, under Sikorsky license, production of SH-3D helicopters began, and in 1974 production of HH- 3F (S-61R); production of final HH-3F Combat SAR version lasted into mid-1990s. Together withElicotteri Meridionali, SIAI-Marchetti, and other Italian companies, Agusta became involved in production of the Boeing Vertol CH-47C Chinook. Other license-built helicopters include AB-412EP/Griffon/Maritime Patrol versions of the Bell 412EP and Griffon, AMD-500E version of the McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) MD 500E, and Agusta-Boeing 520N NOTAR helicopter.

TBN (Tonini-Bergonzi-Negri) Italia-2.
Span: 6m, Weight: 340 kg, Motor: 35 hp.
An earlier canard monoplane, the more streamlined Italia-1, was designed for the Italian 1913 trials but became badly damaged by Alessandro Tonini during a landing. Due to a lack of funds and an underpowered airframe, Tonini shifted to a more “rough” and lighter configuration as a replacement: the Italia-2. According to Tonini’s son, the aircraft never flew.

North London Flying House.
Was partially built in 1906 by a French “designer”. Intended to have 8 wings 54 ft. long, 4 propellers, and carry 100 passengers.

Lutskoy I.
first aircraft design of Б.Г. Луцкий (transcribed as B.G. Lutskii, variously spelled in Germany, France, Austria etc.). The machine is dated as 1909 and described as a “Винтокрылый аппарат”, which can be translated as “Rotary-wing apparatus”.

Sellers Quadruplane.
Built and flown by Matthew B. Sellers in somewhat different versions during 1908 and 1913. Engines used were a Kemp G-2 two-cylinder engine of 16 hp and an 8 hp Dutheil-Chalmers.

Dorner Eindecker.
The Dorner monoplane was a well known sight around Johannistahl. Georg Schendel set a German record for altitude of 2010 meters on 6 June, 1911, and a World Altitude record with passenger, of 1690 meters on 9 June, 1911, in his Dorner. Type II had a 20 hp Dorner-Motor and cost 13,500 Marks. Type III came with a 40 hp Dorner-Motor at 15,500 Marks, or 50 hp at 16,500 Marks. The T.III version had a fatal accident for both passenger and pilot on 9 June, 1911 at Johannistahl. This photo is unaltered and scanned directly from the Original 1912 Dorner Company brochure.

Etrich-Wels “Etrich I”
Pusher monoplane with Antoinette 24 hp engine, tested in the fall of 1907, as shown in the original Etrich Taube brochure. Igo Etrich is in the pilot seat. Had a front elevator and control of the aircraft was for the first time using wing warping. The tests flights were performed at Vienna, Prater Square. For the start was prepared a rail starting ramp, but the aircraft was too heavy to fly. Designed by Igo Etrich and Franz Xavier Wels. Built at Oberaltstadt, near Trautenau (today Trutnov, Czech Republic). more1 (Deutsch)  

“Mikst” of I. A. Matyunin. Mixed HTA/LTA flying machine of 1891.
Микст И. А. Матюнина в Охтенской верфи в 1891 г.

    List of illustrations (partly)

  1. Drawing controlled balloon Leppiha. (P. 43)
  2. Drawing general form and details of guided balloon "air engine" R. Chernosvitova (p. 92)
  3. Device MA Rykacheva to determine the lift screws (p. 153)
  4. Controlled balloon "airship" Vice-Admiral NM Sokovnin (1866) (p. 161)
  5. Barracks and yard team of military balloonists at Roller Field in 1885 left gazodobyvatelny apparatus. (P. 309)
  6. General view of the guided balloon project M. Malykhina (p. 340)
  7. Gazodobyvatelny apparatus system Garuta. (P. 349)
  8. Mixed IA Matyunin in Okhta shipyard in 1891 (p. 489)
  9. Mixed And A Matyunin prepared for flight (p. 490)
  10. Mounted winch AE Garuta (p. 617)
  11. Controlled balloon-mixed designs KY Danilevsky.The picture shows: blanket, covering the container, fastening the seat balloonist and rowing oars. (P. 660)
  12. Seat mounting system balloonist and rowing oars. (P. 661)
  13. General view. (P. 662)
  14. Controlled balloon-mixed designs KY Danilevskii in flight. (P. 662)
  15. Hanging baskets of pigeons to the gondola balloon from experience Modlin fortress balloon offices. (P. 710)
  16. One option baskets of pigeons and its suspension in air Chari (1902). (P. 710)
  17. Dvukolochny Field apparatus. (P. 717)
  18. Field dvukolochnaya winch. (P. 722)
  19. Balloons Training aerostatic park at the Kursk maneuvers. (P. 724)
  20. Balloon Osovetskogo serf balloon before the flight department for the collection of troops fortress Osovets in 1902 (p. 728)
  21.  Balloon after the descent. (P. 729)
  22. The rise in air kites. (P. 738)
  23. Saddle gazodobyvatelny apparatus in the stowed position. (P. 760)
  24. Scheme Area E Sandepu made by Colonel AM Kovan'ko from a balloon 17 January 1905 (p. 803)

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